Thursday, March 31, 2016

Sassafras

The Sassafras tree is a member of the Laurel family. Having only three varieties, two of which are native to China and Taiwan, and the other is native to the Eastern portion of the United States. Spreading by suckers growing from the roots, in it's natural habitat it is commonly found growing along the woods edge and fields or as the understory of a forest.

Image Citation: (Photo 1) USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station Archive, USDA Forest Service, SRS, Bugwood.org & (Photo 2) The Dow Gardens Archive, Dow Gardens, Bugwood.org 

The fruit from the Sassafras is blue in color when mature starting at clear and red when young. Growing from red stems the fruit grow in an almost ornamental pattern. The fruit/berries are a favorite of small birds such as Finches in the Spring and Summer. Like the Amercian Holly, the Sassafras is dioecious, meaning the pistallate and staminate flowers mostly grow on different trees.

Image Citation: Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources - Forestry Archive, Bugwood.org

The Sassafras tree has a unique scent that is recognizable even before the tree is in view, the oil that produces the scent is in the roots, the leaves and even the bark of the tree. Teas can be made by steeping the roots of the tree-Native American are recorded to have used this tea to treat many ailments. The oil was also used as the flavoring for traditional Root Beer prior to it's use being banned by the FDA in 1960 because of the Safrole found in the oil was thought to be a possible carcinogen. This banned was reversed partially in 1994 but new restrictions were put into place to be sure that the Safrole was removed prior to human consumption . File Powder, is a spicy herb made from dried and ground leaves. It was traditionally used by Native Americans in the South, and was adopted into Creole cuisine in Louisiana as a very commonly used ingredient.

Image Citations (Left & Right Photos): Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org

The foliage of the Sassafras is very unique having as many as three varying type of leaves. The leaves can vary from single lobes, double lobed or mitten shaped to triple lobed. They are green in color during the growing season and in the fall put on a very beautiful show. The leaves will vary in color in the fall from Yellow, Orange, Scarlet and Crimson.

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Pecan - Carya illinoensis

Meet the "Pecan" Tree - Carya illinoensis. A large domed tree, native to Floodplains and River Valleys in the Southeast and Central Eastern US. It's leaves can get up to 20 inches long, and are made up of 11-17 opposite, toothed leaflets. The flowers are a greenish color, the males have slender catkins in cluster of 3's, while females have clusters of 2-10 on the same twig.

Image Citation (Pecan Leaves): Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Bugwood.org

The Pecan is a member of the Hickory family, a small species with just 11 members in the Eastern US, 1 other in Mexico and 2 in South China.  The Hickory family is part of the larger Walnut family-they have similar pinnate leaves and large fruits but differ in wingnuts, flower and branching structures.  The timber is very tough, slightly elastic and shock resistant. They are not easily grown as the seeds can only be used when fresh, they also do not transplant well.

Image Citation (Pecan Plantation): Howard F. Schwartz, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org
The Pecan is widely planting throughout the United States for it's nuts, often in plantations. It flowers in the early spring and produces fruit in the fall. A pecan, like the fruit of all other members of the hickory genus, is not truly a nut, but is technically a drupe, a fruit with a single stone or pit, surrounded by a husk. The seeds of the pecan are edible, with a rich, buttery flavor. They can be eaten fresh or used in cooking, particularly in sweet desserts.  Int he photo below you will see a shaker harvesting Pecan nuts from the tree.

Image Citation (Shaker Harvesting Pecan Nuts): Brad Haire, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org

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Crabapples (Not a tasty one but still considered and edible in some cultures)

Crabapples are small deciduous trees with a broad and open crown. Apples and Crabapples are in the rose family, Rosaceae, in the genus Malus. Crabapples are differentiated from Apples based on fruit size. If fruit is two inches in diameter or less, it is termed a Crabapple. If the fruit is larger than two inches, it is classified as an Apple. The height of Crabapples ranges greatly from 6- 50 feet depending on the variety and the growing conditions, however most average in the 15-25 ft range. There are currently 35 species and over 700 cultivated varieties of Crabapples recorded.

Image Citation (Crabapple in bloom-Left & Right): Dow Gardens Archive, Dow Gardens, Bugwood.org

The fragrant flowers are white with a hint of pink or sometimes all pink. Growing in clusters of flowers that appear with the new leaves. Crabapple flowers may be single (5 petals), semi-double (6 to 10 petals) or double (more than 10 petals). Single-flowered Crabapple varieties tend to bloom earlier than semi-double or double-flowered varieties. Actual dates of blossoming can vary each year depending on weather conditions. The length of time in bloom, can range from 1 to 2 weeks, depending on the variety and weather conditions.

Image Citation (Southern Crabapple Flowers Purple and White): Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Bugwood.org

The leaves are coarsely toothed and green in color. In the fall the leaves change in color, the colors range from yellow to orange, red to purple. The falling leaves reveal the still attached fruits offering another level of interest.
The Crabapples fruit is small, long stalked and rather sour in flavor. They are yellow-green in color an grow in clusters of 3 to 4. The fruit is rarely eaten raw as it is sour, bitter and sometimes woody in texture. However in some Asian cultures it is used and valued as a sour condiment. There are few varieties that are sweet though not as common as the sour varieties.

Image Citation (Crabapple Illustration): Zelimir Borzan, University of Zagreb, Bugwood.org

Crabapple has been listed as one of the 38 plants that are used to prepare Bach flower remedies, an alternative medicine practice promoted for its effect on health. Though this has not been scientifically proven to date.
The Crabapple grows commonly in forest clearings and near streams in the Eastern United States (but not very far North). Ornamental varieties are grown throughout the United States in many Landscapes. Crabapple trees are fairly drought tolerant. They can be low maintenance and versatile landscape plants, and offer more than one season of interest between their flowers, fruit, and changing leaf colors. 

The Paw Paw - Asimina triloba

The Paw Paw (Asimina triloba) is a small deciduous fruit bearing tree that is native to North America.  They grow wild in much of the eastern and midwestern portions of the country, but not in the extreme North, West or South.   

Image Citation (Photos 1 & 2): Rob Routledge, Sault College, Bugwood.org 

The leaves are green in the growing season and an elongated oval shape ranging in size from 10-12 inches long.  In the fall the leaves change to a rusty yellow in color.  When crushed the leaves have a strong unique odor, often compared to that of a bell pepper.  The leaves contain toxic annonaceous acetogenins, making them impalatable to most insects. The one exception is the Zebra Swallowtail Butterfly.  

The flowers have 3 prominent triangular shaped green, brown or purple outer petals.  The flowers are insect pollinated, but fruit production is often limited by the small number of pollinators that are actually attracted to flowers very faint scent.  
Image Citation (Photo 3): Wendy VanDyk Evans, Bugwood.org

The fruit is a green-brown in color and a curved cylindrical shape - the shape of the fruit is very similar to a fat lima bean.  The trees produce an almost tropical fruit with vanilla or banana/mango flavors. When ripe, the fruit’s soft flesh is very creamy in texture. The large seeds are easy to remove, making the pawpaw an excellent pick for fresh eating.  The short shelf life makes it an uncommon find in most market areas.   Fresh fruits of the Paw Paw are generally eaten raw, either chilled or at room temperature. However, they can be kept only 2–3 days at room temperature, or about a week if refrigerated.  

Many animals and insects make use of the Paw Paw tree and it's fruit.  The flowers attract blowflies, carrion beetles, fruit flies, carrion flies and other bettle varieties.  The fruits of the Paw Paw are enjoyed by a variety of mammals, including raccoons, foxes, opossums, squirrels, and black bears. Larvae of the Zebra Swallowtail Butterfly, feed exclusively on young leaves of Paw Paw.  Chemicals in the Paw Paw leaves offer protection from predation throughout the butterfly's life remaining in their systems and making them unpalatable to predators.  Whitetail deer do not feed on the Paw Paw.

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"Strawberry" Tree - Arbutus unedo

The "Strawberry" Tree - Arbutus unedo, is a small tree in the Ericaceae family, that is native to the Mediterranean Region & Western Europe including Portugal, Spain, Morocco, Algeria, Eastern Italy, Croatia, Greece, Cyprus, Lebanon, Ireland, and Southern France.  It is a large evergreen shrub or small tree only reaching an average height of only 30 feet, with very few found as tall as 50 feet.  It is sometimes called the Cane Apple, Irish or Killarney Strawberry Tree due to it's numbers in Ireland.  

Image Citation: John Ruter, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org

Though it's name may lead you to believe otherwise it's fruits are not the Strawberry we all enjoy eating, those come from a common or garden Strawberry; Fragaria × ananassa which grows in a vine or bush form.  The fruit of the Strawberry tree is a red berry, that is rounded and only gets to be about 1–2 cm in diameter.  The surface of the berries are rough in appearance and texture. They mature in about 12 months during the Fall at the same time as the next flowers begin to appear. This fruit is also edible and when red is at it's sweetest.  The fruit is considered to be mealy in texture and boring in flavor by many and is often compared to a fig in flavor.  It can be used to make jams, jellys and liqueurs (Brandy and Riki). The trees are often planted as a Bee Plant for Honey production.  Other wildlife such as birds enjoy eating the small fruits.

Image Citation: William M. Ciesla, Forest Health Management International, Bugwood.org

The leaves are finely toothed and range in size from 2-4 inches long, they are pale green in color below and a glossy dark green above.  The flowers appear in drooping panicles usually containing 10-30 individual flowers each. They are usually white, rarely a pale pink and bell shaped. The flowers are Hermaphroditic meaning they contain both sexual organs required for reproduction.  

It can be grown in hardiness zones 4-9 and requires mild winters to be successful.  It grows best in well-drained soil and is very drought tolerant (prefers dry summers) and is well suited to California's climate.  Propagation can be successfully accomplished by seeds, cuttings, or layering and it can be trained as a large shrub, but it looks much better when grown as a small tree.

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The Avocado - Persea americana

The Avocado - Persea americana - tree is a very desirable ornamental, native only to the subtropical areas of Mexico and Central America. The growing conditions must be It's fruit is often included on the seemingly growing list of "super foods", it is very high in vitamin K & B and also contains C, D & Potassium. High Avocado intake was shown in one study to lower blood cholesterol levels.


With an average height of just 65 feet, it is a medium sized grower. When planted in pots it is necessary to re-pot quite often as they quickly outgrow small areas. The leaves are an elongated oval shape, deep green in color with a slight sheen on the top. The fruits are either pear or egg shaped with green skin that can range from mid green to almost a black-green and pale green inside. Avocado skin, bark and pits are harmful to many animals and have been recorded to cause severe reactions to dogs, cats, cattle and rabbits. The meat of the Avocado is smooth in texture and is often compared to butter in flavor. It is very often used in Vegetarian cuisine as a meat substitute because of it's high fat content. It is also commonly used in California Rolls, Guacamole, Sandwiches, Salads, Soups and Sauces. Commercially in the United States, Haas Avocados are the most known/marketed type even thought there are dozen of other cultivars grown worldwide.

Image Citations (Photos 1-3): Forest and Kim Starr, Starr Environmental, Bugwood.org

Avocado fruits are climacteric, meaning they mature on the tree but don't ripen until taken off. They will only ripen if mature, so if picked early the ripening process will not occur. The Banana is another fruit in the climacteric catagory. Most Avocado crops produce the best crops bi-annually with poor yeilds in the off or in between years. Once off of the tree the fruit will ripen within a two week period, if left on the tree to long the fruit will eventually fall off on it's own. Avocados can be grown from seed, although it will take the new plantings 4-6 years to mature and bear fruit. Indoors you can also grow Avocados from the pits in water, holding them near the surface with toothpicks, once the stem reaches an inch or two you can transfer it to soil.

"Black Walnut" - Juglans nigra

Meet the "Black Walnut" - Juglans nigra

The Black Walnut - Juglans nigra - is a large flowering deciduous tree in the Walnut family, growing to heights of 100-130+ feet tall.  The bark is a grey-black color that shows deep furrows throughout.  The leaves are green during the growing season and are made up of 15-23 leaflets growing in an alternate pattern, chaging in color to a bright yellow in the fall.  

Image Citations: (Photo #1) Bill Cook, Michigan State University, Bugwood.org (Photo #2) Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Bugwood.org 

The roots of  the Black Walnut produce a chemical called Juglone (5-hydroxy-alphanapthaquinone), this chemical is known to be harmful or toxic to many other plants and some animals. most notably horses.  Horses are effected most when Black Walnut wood chips or sawdust are used in their bedding, exhibiting allergy symptoms (which are worse in the spring) similar to that of humans.  Plants including tomatoes, potatoes, blackberries, blueberries, azaleas, mountain laurels, rhododendrons, red pines and apples are known to be severly injured if not killed when planted/grown in 50-60 foot of the Black Walnut. Gardeners should take care when planning a garden around a mature Black Walnut, paying extra attention to what plants are tolerant of Juglone.  

The Black Walnut is native to the Mid-West and Eastern-Central United States, with a recommended growth zone of 4-9.  This tree is used in both nut and lumber production.  The trees begin to produce nuts at 4-7 years old and continue annually ripening each October, because it is self pollinating it is possible to have nuts with just one tree.  The nut is firm and has an enjoyable flavor.

Image Citation (Photo #3): USDA Forest Service - Northeastern Area Archive, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org 

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The "White Mulberry" - Morus alba

Meet The "White Mulberry" - Morus alba

The White Mulberry - Morus alba - is a small to medium size tree native to China.  It is recorded to have been widely cultivated in China for over four thousand years to provide feedstock for silkworms. It has been cultivated for Silkworm raising and fruit so much so, that it is hard to determine where the orignal natural range lines begin/end.  It's leaves are also used as feedstock for livestock in areas where the climate does not allow for adequate ground covers.  It has been naturalized throughout most of the warmer temperate regions of the world including North America, India, and Southern Europe.  In some areas of the United States it is included on the invasive species list as it's ability to hybridize with the native Red Mulberry causes concern for the future of the Red Mulberry species.  If not properly managed this plant has a habit of becoming weedy and invasive, even displacing more desirable vegetation. It is found in hardiness zones 4-9 in North America.  

Image Citation: Ohio State Weed Lab , The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org

Mulberry fruits are unique because each apparent fruit is actually made up of a cluster of fruits and the fleshy swollen part is the swollen calyx. The fruit is 1–2 1/2 cm long on average.  When found growing wild the fruit is a deep purple, but in many cultivated plants it varies from white to pink. The flavor is sweet but bland, unlike the more intense flavor of the red and black mulberry fruit. The fruit is enjoyed by many wild birds, hogs and poultry.  Seeds are often spread by birds consuming the fruit.  The flowers are single-sex catkins, male and female flowers are usually on separate trees although they may occur on the same tree but usually not connected to one another. The pollen of the White Mulberry has an extremely rapid release, moving at twice the speed of sound.

Image Citation: John Cardina, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org

When young the leaves on the White Mulberry can reach up to 12 inches long, while a more mature tree may only have leaves that are 2-6 inches long.  The leaves are very interestingly shaped and can have as many as five diffrent shaped leaves on one tree.  The leaf shapes vary from a simple ovate to a more intricately lobed version.  During the growing season they are a bright green color changing to a pale to bright yellow in the fall.  In very warm climates the tree may act as an evergreen retaining it's leaves year round.  At maturity the White Mulberry reaches an average height of 30-65 feet.

Image Citation: Chuck Bargeron, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org

The White Mulberry is said to have some medicinal qualities and has been used throughout history for various ailments.  When taken internally the leaves are said to treat sore throats, eye infections, nose bleeds and the common cold.  The stems have been used in the treatment of rheumatic conditions, high blood pressure and spasms.  The fruit when eaten is said to to help ease dizziness, diabetes and constipation.  The root bark has been used in Asian cultures as a traditional medicine and antibacterial combatant against the micro-organisms that cause food poisoning.

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The Juneberry - Amelanchier alnifolia

The Juneberry - Amelanchier alnifolia - is a very hardy (to zone 2) medium to tall suckering shrub.  This shrub is native to hillsides, prairies and woody areas in North America, mainly the futher north portions of the Mid-Western United States and prairie regions of Canada.  Juneberry -Amelanchier alnifolia is a close cousin of the Eastern Serviceberry (Amelanchier canadensis), which is found more commonly in the United States as a tall forest shrub.  Our neighbors to the North in Canada call the Juneberry the Saskatoon Serviceberry and even harvest it on farms for wholesale, you pick and fresh market uses.  The Juneberry seems to have several advantages to the more commonly grown/known Blueberry.  While Blueberries prefer well-drained acidic soils, the Juneberry is not so picky and will often thrive in areas where a Blueberry bush would die.  Juneberries are considered an uncommon fruit in the United States, with virtually no commercial cultivation.  In comparison to the market of our Canadian neighbors where Juneberries are grown on almost 900 farms covering more than 3,200 acres.  

The Buds of the Juneberry are arranged in an alternate fashion, when the buds appear they are a Chestnut Brown to Purple in color.  The leaves are a simple oval shape and are serrated to dentate from the mid sections up.  When young the leaves are a grayish color, but quickly changing to a smooth dark green.  In the fall the shrub has a completely different appearance when the leaves shift to a bright yellow color.  The white flowers form in erect racemes appearing only at the tips of the branches.  The bark is light brown in color often shifting to gray with age.  It's hardiness, upright form, and size allow the Juneberry to be planted as a screen, windbreak, landscape border or for naturalizing of an area. Often found growing 6-15 feet tall with a spread of 5- 12 feet.  The Juneberry has a very high wildlife value as it offers not only cover but various food sources. The stems and twigs are eaten by deer, elk and moose. The fruits are eaten by a variety of small mammals and birds. The wood of the Juneberry was used in crafting arrow shafts by the Native Americans.

Image Citation (Flowers): Mary Ellen (Mel) Harte, Bugwood.org

Juneberries are very nutritious and are sold fresh, frozen, and even processed.  They are most commonly compared in flavor texture and appearance to the common Blueberry.  An average Juneberry contains 18 percent sugar, and about 80 percent water.   Juneberries have a lower moisture content than blueberries, so they have relatively higher amounts of calcium, fiber, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. Juneberries are an excellent source of iron, with each serving providing around 23% of the reccommended daily  amount of iron (this is almost double what a Blueberry contains). They also provide healthy amounts of potassium, magnesium, anthocyanins.  The levels of phosphorous. vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B-6, folate, vitamin A and vitamin E are almost identical to that of a Blueberry.

Mary Ellen (Mel) Harte, Bugwood.org

If you want to begin your own Juneberry crop, begin by developing your rows well in advance of ordering or delivery of plant material. Rows should be spaced on average 10 – 12 feet apart, planning for about 4 feet between bushes at maturity.  It will take patience as your first crop will not be ready until three years after planting, but you can expect each bush to yield 4 – 6 pounds of berries annually.  Remember that they need adequate water to bear fruit but do not tolerant excessively wet roots so do not overwater.  Great care in establishing your new crop will provide you with a very yummy payoff year after year!

Some commonly cultivated varieties you may find for purchase are:   Honeywood Juneberry (A. alnifolia 'Honeywood'), Northline Juneberry (A. alnifolia 'Northline'), Pembina Juneberry (A. alnifolia 'Pembina'), Smokey Juneberry (A. alnifolia 'Smokey'), and Success Juneberry (A. alnifolia 'Success')

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Arbor Day's - Hazelnut Project

The Arbor Day Foundation has been working for 20 years to perfect the Hazelnut and create a superior variety that not only produces delicious and nutritious nuts but also offers disease resistance and tolerance of the wide range of growth conditions the United States provides. In 1996, The Hazelnut Project began with nine acres and the planting of roughly 5200 juvenile bushes made up of 60 different hybridized Hazelnuts near the Lied Lodge at The Arbor Day Farm in Nebraska. By 2005 they had gained assistance from more then 50,000 charter patrons nationwide who had agreed to plant, observe and report progress of their own bushes. By 2012 new seedlings were propagated using a combination of the best performers from the originally distributed plants, patron grown nuts and even some plantings found in the wild. Now in 2016, there is hope that even better hybrids will continue to develop over time and the plants will be become stronger and more hardy.

Image Citation: Richard Webb, Bugwood.org

Hazelnuts are considered by many as a super food, their rich complex buttery flavor allows them to not only be eaten alone but also pair well with many other foods. They are high in dietary fiber, Vitamin E, magnesium, potassium, antioxidants, phytonutrients, and Vitamin B. Studies have found that the consumption of just 1.5 ounces of Hazelnuts per day may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. They contain mainly mono-unsaturated fats which are the heart healthy and no cholesterol they are a heart healthy smack. The Hazelnut crops appear in the late summer, replacing the delicate red blossoms.

Hazelnut bushes are considered to be woody agriculture, this means that they help slow climate change by providing oxygen and offsetting the build up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The plants are capable of capturing solar energy, which makes them photosynthetically efficient. They are deep, rapid rooting and can live for up to 80 years. They begin producing crops as early as 2-3 years after planting. Hazelnut shells can be used as a safe and efficient fuel alternative which can lead to a reduced demand for wood and other energy sources.

Image Citation: Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Bugwood.org

How can you help? You can support The Hazelnut Project or any of Arbor Day's other programs by visiting their website and making a donation or becoming a member today. www.ArborDay.org

Meet A Tree: Meet the "Miracle Tree" - Moringa oleifera

Meet A Tree: Meet the "Miracle Tree" - Moringa oleifera: Moringa oleifera is the most common of all of the Moringa genus.  The Moringa are the only members of the Moringaceae family.  Moringa olei...

Meet A Tree: Meet the Butternut - Juglans cinerea

Meet A Tree: Meet the Butternut - Juglans cinerea: The Butternut -  Juglans cinerea , is a medium to large sized deciduous tree that can reach heights upwards of 75 feet in ideal growth cond...

The Elderberries - Sambucus

The Elderberries - Sambucus are a small genus made up of only 10 species of which only 2 are commonly found in North America the American Elderberry- Sambucus nigra and the Red Elderberry- Sambucus racemosa, a third Danewort/Dwarf Elderberry- Sambucus ebulus is reported to be naturalized in the Northeast portions of the United States. They are deciduous shrubs, small trees or herbs with very soft wood and conspicuous pith.

Image Citation: (Common Elderberry) Charles T. Bryson, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org

The leaves are opposite and compound usually pinnate but occasionally bi-pinnate. The leaflets are lanceolate or ovate with distinctly toothed margins. The flowers are small, white or cream in color and generally made up 3-5 petals and 5 stamens. When crushed the flowers produce a sweet yet rancid odor. The fruit is a fleshy round berry like drupe, red or black in color depending on the species, these berries generally occur in bunches.

Image Citation: (Elderberry Flowers)  Ohio State Weed Lab , The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org

The Elderberries are mostly found in moist to wet areas, roadsides, ditches, wetland and woodland margins at elevations ranging from 3-3000 m. It is a dominant under story species in riparian woodlands where it persists despite the competition from other species, it does not however grow well in closed story forests. American Elderberries are found from the central portion of the US (Wisconsin to Texas) all the way to the East Coast and as far North as Nova Scotia. The Red Elderberries are found in a more limited area on either coast of the US, from Alaska in the North and Northern California in the South on the Pacific Coast, Sporadically from Northern Idaho to Arizona and New Mexico in the central portion of the country, and from Wisconsin to Nova Scotia in the North East and West Virginia, Northern Virginia, Maryland and Delaware in the Mid-Atlantic/South.

Image Citation: (Red Elderberry) Gil Wojciech, Polish Forest Research Institute, Bugwood.org

American Elderberry is best distinguished by the black fruit, whereas the Red Elderberry has red fruit. Similar species include Box Elder and Ash, which have similar leaves however neither have fleshy fruits as the Elderberries do. The fleshy fruit is edible and has been used by various cultures including Native Americans, Spaniards, Cahuillas, French, Austrians, and Germans for many different purposes. The berries can be used to make wine, jams, jelly, syrup and pies. When dried they can be cooked down to form a sauce (sometimes called sauco by the Cahuillas) that does not require any type of sweetening. The flowers are sometimes added to batters, eaten raw, added to teas, or even fried for a sweet snack. The twigs can be used to tap Maple trees for Syrup collection, basket weaving, flute and clapper stick making, tinder and even homemade squirt guns (when hollowed out).

Image Citation: (Dwarf Elderberry) Jan Samanek, Phytosanitary Administration, Bugwood.org

Many Elderberries are planted for their ornamental value offering visual interest with both the flowers and the berries, others are planted for the wildlife value as they attract birds, small mammals, rodents, deer and butterflies. They are very a productive, adaptable and easy to establish species. Elderberries also are a very useful ground cover for stabilizing stream banks and other sites that are prone to erosion. Elderberries grow best from seed and are most often sown in the Fall season, cutting from this species are not very successful. This species is recommended for hardiness zones 3-8 and can be found at many nurseries for planting in your own garden.

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